Fangirl Challenge: [2/5] villains - Richard III
the children live whose fathers thou hast slaughtered,
ungoverned youth to wail it with their age;
the parents live whose children thou hast butchered,
old withered plants, to wail it with their age.
swear not by time to come; for that thou hast
misused, ere used, by time’s ill-used repast
Edmond Albius was born a slave in St. Suzanne, Réunion in 1829. His mother died in childbirth, and at a young age he was placed on the estate of Ferreol Bellier -Beaumont, a noted horticulturalist. French colonists brought vanilla beans to Réunion (and nearby Mauritius) in the 1820s with the hope of starting production there. However, the vines were sterile because they relied on a symbiotic relationship with the Melibona bee, and no insect in Réunion would pollinate them.
In the 1830s, Charles Francois Antoine Morren (a Belgian botanist) discovered the need to hand-pollinate vanilla, but his technique was slow and too difficult to make cultivating the vanilla a commercially viable endeavor. Ferreol Bellier-Beaumont tried to hand-pollinate vanilla specimens on his own estate, but with no luck — until one day in 1841, he saw his plants beginning to form fruit.
It was Albius, at the age of 12, who discovered how to quickly pollinate the vanilla orchid with a thin stick or blade of grass and a simple thumb gesture. With the stick or grass blade, field hands lift the rostellum, the flap that separates the male anther from the female stigma, and then, with their thumbs, smear the sticky pollen from the anther over the stigma. Beaumont notified the owners of other estates of the breakthrough, and Albius led workshops where he demonstrated his method. Soon, Réunion was the world’s largest supplier of vanilla.
Though Albius’s discovery remained credited to his name (despite some efforts otherwise), he never benefited financially from his contribution to the island’s economy. France outlawed slavery in its colonies in 1948, and Albius left the plantation for St. Denis, where he worked as a kitchen servant. With little money and resources, he was convicted for stealing and sentenced to 10 years in prison — a sentence which was eventually commuted to 5 years in recognition of what he had done for the colonies. He married Marie-Pauline Rassama, a seamstress, who died soon after. Albius died in poverty in St. Suzanne in 1880. (x, x, x)
Classic Hollywood Meme | (01) A Silent Movie
↳ The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1920)
His soul swooned slowly as he heard the snow falling faintly through the universe and faintly falling, like the descent of their last end, upon all the living and the dead. - James Joyce
In Her Shoes (2005)